Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a method whereby solid wastes which have beforehand been landfilled are excavated and processed. The task of landfill mining is to lessen the sum of landfill mass summed up within the closed landfill and/or momentarily remove dangerous material to let defensive measures to be taken prior to the landfill mass is replaced. In the method mining recovers precious recyclable materials, a flammable fraction, soil, and landfill space. The airing of the landfill soil is a secondary benefit about the landfills future use. On the whole appearance of the landfill mining method is a series of processing machines laid out in a functional conveyor system. The operating principle is to dig up, sieve and sort the landfill material.
The idea of landfill mining was commenced as early as 1953 at the Hiriya landfill functioned by the Dan Region Authority next to the City of Tel Aviv, Israel. Waste has several resources with elevated value. The most distinguished of which are non-ferrous metals like aluminium cans and scrap metal. The concentration of aluminium in a lot of landfills is more than the concentration of aluminum in bauxite from which the metal is derived.
Landfill mining is also probable in countries where land is not available for novel landfill sites. In this example landfill space may be reclaimed by the taking out of biodegradable waste and other matters then refilled with wastes wanting disposal.
Mining construction landfill sites is the easiest type of landfill mining. Construction landfills have three vital components, wood, scrap metal and gypsum, or drywall, along with a minimum amount of other construction materials. The wood accumulated may be utilized as fuel in coal burning power plants and the scrap metal reprocessed.
Mining of municipal landfills is very intricate and has to be based on the predictable content of the landfill. Older landfills, in the United States before 1994, were frequently capped and closed, fundamentally entombing the waste. This may be helpful for waste recovery. It may also create a elevated risk for toxic waste and leachate exposure as the landfill has not completely processed the stewing wastes. Mining of bioreactor landfills and correctly stabilized modern sanitary landfills gives its own benefits. The biodegradable wastes are more simply sieved out, leaving the non biodegradable materials willingly accessible. The quality of these materials for recycling and reprocessing purposes is not as elevated as at first recycled materials, nevertheless materials like aluminum and steel are normally barred from this.